Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict Evidence from 55 Developing Countries

The article, â€Å"Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict: Evidence from 55 Developing Countries†, analyzes the relationship between socioeconomic and political factors in the context of civil unrest and segregation of minority groups. The author evaluates the tendency of conflicts at ethnic, religious and regional levels due to the effect of factors such as the type of regime and political alienation.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict: Evidence from 55 Developing Countries specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author establishes greater tendency of unrest and conflicts in regional groups compared to ethnic and religious groups by sampling populations from 55 developing countries. The author focuses on aspects of horizontal inequality because it does not arise from inherent inequality such as intelligence, but is rath er a form of forced inequality on diverse subcultures. Collection of the samples entails calculation of welfare inequalities between different identify groups and analyses of key socioeconomic indicators such as educational levels and household assets. The article identifies a relationship between different systems of governance at the regional level and tendencies of conflict because of horizontal inequalities, which the author identifies to be stronger in democratic and semi-democratic systems than in autocratic systems. While the creation of democratic systems does not necessarily translate into the occurrence of conflicts, the aspect of inclusiveness and freedom in such systems encourages protests because democratic systems facilitate proportional representation of diverse groups. In this regard, marginalized groups have the opportunity and means to mobilize and protest against socioeconomic inequalities and seek address of low economic development in their region (Østby 19). On the other hand, the structure of autocratic systems limits the chances of disadvantaged groups to mobilize for protest because of the lack of all-inclusive systems, which eliminate the channels through which groups can express their grievances and allows a greater extent of state repression compared to democratic systems. The author evaluates the impacts of different forms of institutional structuring on the political process in a country and discusses the importance of inclusiveness in key government institutions. An analysis of countries with great levels of socioeconomic inequality and alienation of ethnic, religious and regional groups indicates that sustenance of peace requires the creation of all-inclusive institutions, which minimize grievances and sentiments among groups (Østby 10). The article describes the eruption of wars and conflicts in most countries as an outcome of grievances that have remained unattended to for a long time causing the affected groups to mobil ize for war. The analysis of horizontal inequalities and civil conflict indicates that economic inequality cannot lead to political unrest in itself, but requires the catalyst of an environment in which people can organize themselves into groups and start a rebellion. Expression of frustrations and grievances among individuals due to socioeconomic factors such as poverty requires the existence of systems and institutions that allow the group aspect of human beings to thrive.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author concludes by emphasizing on the role of inequality in the occurrence of conflicts and contrasts numerous assertions that describe inequality as being immaterial in cases of civil unrest. Furthermore, the author encourages the need for processes of conflict resolution to consider aspects of regional inequality and political alienation of minority because of their significant role in civil conflicts. Sustenance of peace requires the establishment of political systems and institutions that ensure inclusiveness of minority groups in proportionate measures. By creating programs to address socioeconomic inequality, political regimes can significantly reduce cases of civil unrest and conflict. Work Cited Østby, Gudrun. Horizontal inequalities, political environment, and civil conflict: evidence  from 55 developing countries, 1986-2003. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, Development Research Group, Growth and Macroeconomics Team, 2007. Print. This essay on Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict: Evidence from 55 Developing Countries was written and submitted by user Madison Sargent to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

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