Monday, February 24, 2020
History of Policing in America - Essay Example However, as colonies shifted into towns, as well as towns into big cities, the Justice of the Peace organization was not sufficient. It was time for a well structured and salaried police service unit. Nevertheless, during that time, there were no policewomen. Boston initiated Night Watch in the early 1600s, which worked logically well in areas where the settlers embraced a rural culture, as well as an agrarian lifestyle (London, 2006). New York City, on the other hand, in 1651, set up the Shout and Rattle Watch, but, in 1705, Philadelphia thought that it was necessary to split the city into ten patrol regions. This was, in reality, the first stab in the United States at "controlled law enforcement" as it was worth the effort (London, 2006). Sometime between the Civil Wars and Revolutionary, the over-rapid increase of industrialization and population in the United States mandated the development of metropolitan police departments. Philadelphia, in 1833, prepared an independent, 24/7 watch squad (London, 2006). In 1844, New York, in 1844, maintained two police units, one unit worked during the day and the other one took their shift at night. During this time, police departments were run by police chiefs, chosen and answerable to political bosses inharmoniously comparable to what was observed in the black and white police films of the 1950s. Corruption ran out of control. Another law enforcement technique that American inherited from Britain was The Sheriff System. As America migrated west, in a majority frontier townships, the sheriff was the main law enforcement officer (London, 2006). He could be hired from the local community, or more regularly a Sheriff was elected by his repute and the gloomier the representative, th e more likely he was to be selected.Ã
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Causes and Cures of College dropouts - Essay Example They make umpteen numbers of visits to campuses, spend long hours preparing for standardized tests, and prepare well-knit admission essays that leave no chance for rejection. After all these efforts, it these students leave the colleges they have long been trying to reach, one can easily identify that the reason lies not in the attitude or interest of the students, but in some other factors that result in the loss of interest. In my opinion, there are various factors which are economic, cultural, and social in nature. The economic factors Many scholars have acknowledged the fact that lack of funds or financial burden still remains as the first and foremost reason behind college dropout. The main reason behind this issue is the lack of long term vision in students. They prepare their funds well in advance, but only sufficient for the first semester or the first year. Such students soon face financial crisis and start looking for part-time jobs or grants. Most of them get frustrated so on and eventually decide to give up their studies. However, though not ultimate, there are various solutions that students can try before reaching the decision to quit. First of all, they can try to get a job in the college, for example, a position in library or canteen. This will enable them to give adequate attention to their studies. In addition, by improving their communication with other students and professors, they can come to know about the financial resources other such students depend on. Along with this, they might be able to find out possibilities of grants and scholarships. However, if someone believes that financial crisis is the only economic problem, it is too early to reach such a conclusion. There is certainly a category of students who believe that money making is, in no way, connected to education. According to the proponents of this class of thought, the founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates, was a Harvard dropout. The list is long; the cofounder of Oracle, Larry Ell ison, and the inventor of frozen French Fry, John Simplot, to mention but few. In addition, it is pointed out that professional education has nothing to do with professions like journalism, software engineering, and stock trading. So, it cannot be termed irrational if someone claims that Ã¢â¬Ëon-the-jobÃ¢â¬â¢ experience at that age is much better than the highly expensive Ã¢â¬Ëuniversity experienceÃ¢â¬â¢. Social and psychological factors For many students, the transition from school to college is a difficult task. It involves forgetting the old friends and making new contacts, staying away from family and friends, and being totally responsible for ones own time, money, and performance. In fact, studies have shown that some students find the college life totally different from what they expected. They may not get the kind of close attention they used to enjoy at school. In addition, as the study at college is totally different from that at school, there may be a decline in th e scores they get. In addition, for those who move from a rural setting to a city, getting familiar with the lifestyle of city and college is a tough task. While some students take these challenges positively, some may not be able to cope up with the situation, and decide to stop. For those who are not used to staying away from family, homesickness and isolation are two important factors that make them take the wrong decision. However, not all are so homesick that they cannot adjust coming to an urban setting.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Coal Is Just Not Black Gold Essay Based on the literature and observations, he then proposes few strategic recommendations to improve organisational effectiveness both to Law makers and to company. INTRODUCTION Coal India Limited (CIL) is a Government of India Undertaking, Maharatna (CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewel) company which employees 400,000 people approximately as of AprilÃ¢â¬â¢12. In ended last financial year, with net annual sales of 15 billion dollars, and a net annual operating profit of 3 billion dollars approximately by producing coal from its 466 Coal mines across India and selling it to Power generation companies. It is the biggest and only listed company in the sector, where private companies are not allowed to compete, Thus accounting to 80% of Annual national production of Coal in India. CIL has five unions, which represent all the employees in the company. Since the company is only major coal producer and acts more like a monopoly in the sector, wages are low compared to Industry average in other countries. Coal India apart from producing coal on its own also gives few coal mines to private third parties for contract. These mines are smaller in size and remote for the company to allocate resources, hence they are contracted. This strategy of contracting coal mines and not having enough regulations around Coal production has led to few private contractors preferring illegal means of employment in these coal mines and not allowing private competitors to compete with Public sector companies COAL IN INDIA Indian Coal Industry currently occupies third position by producing 400 metric tons per year ( mtpy), after US (1100 mtpy and China 2400 mtpy. Within the country Coal mining is nationalized and accounts for 60 per cent of electricity production. Coal being crucial resource for economic growth, it is safeguarded by government by passing many acts, Indian Mines Act of 1952, Mines and Minerals Regulation and Development (MMRD) act are the key legislative act meant for protecting labour working in mining industry and governing mining and exploration in India respectively. After further revision in 1993 and 2002, National Mining Policy was outlined by Government of India whose objectives are mineral development through exploration in both Onshore and Offshore fields. Policy is meant to promote mineral industry standardize training and research, considering future needs of the country with minimal impact of nature and ensure safety and health of all people involved in the industry. These objectives do make a progress in standardizing the rules, however it has to clearly describe how the law handles informal mines and how to deal with illegitimacy under current law. According to a Journalist expert of small mines Chakravorty (2002), Illegal mines in India constitute of 88 per cent of the total reported mines in count, producing approximately 10 per cent of the total value of mineral production of the country. This number has increased in the last decade , where 30 per cent of illegal mining. These mines comprise of poor people toiling for lowest wages and almost negligible security, health and safety conditions. According to MMRD Act, Mines Act and other Environmental Acts, all minerals are broadly classified into Ã¢â¬Å"MajorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"MinorÃ¢â¬ and rest the responsibility of mining with the state. MMRD has further classified mines has Class A or Class B determined based on the mechanical equipment used and Labour employment the mine generates. Based on financial investment, Labour work, Depth of deposits and technology deployed, mines are simplified to different Classes and given for contract. Typically Class B mines are given for contract to subsidiaries by CIL , One such example is Eastern Coal Fields, in state of Meghalaya, where even though they mines are Small, they are labour intensive and needs to have high security and health standards. National Institute of Small Mines (NISM) , a governing body has classified mines based on the production amounts. From various acts above, it can be understood that legal definitions hinge on physical dimensions of mine, which is in turn is used to determine the effort and time required to mine. However for a complex economic activity like mining with close social linkages and unique to the nature of the mine, such reductionist approach and simplifying mines obscures the diversity of mining practices across scales. As large formal processes of mineral extraction, processing and use cannot be applied to such small mines they tend to be rejected and Illegitimated. Clearly, existing laws have loopholes which are inadequate in handling perennial Informal and Illegal mining. Also Illegal miners cannot lobby for recognition, since current structure of the sector is monopolistic with over 80% reserves under CIL. This situation has resulted in dire consequences and well-being of Local society around colliery areas and environment. COAL INDIA , A MONOPOLY Coal India Limited (CIL) established in 1970, is responsible for mining the coal, while the ownership of which is vested with the state. Consequently the organization has played a critical role in meeting stateÃ¢â¬â¢s growth plans. The decision making on mineral resources is influenced by engineers, geologists, bureaucrats and political groups and governance is solely vested with CIL. The Coal Mines Nationalisation Bill, 2000 allows state governments to mine coal only if CIL certifies with no Intention to mine certificate. The Ministry of Coal ( MoC ) has awarded CIL a near monopolistic power, giving rise to tight control on its countryÃ¢â¬â¢s reserves and lack of transparency in many areas. Because of lack of more advanced technology for procuring coal and other social costs, it is also noted that mining cost of Coal in India is 35% higher than other exporting countries like Indonesia, Australia, because of poor productivity ( 3 tonnes / man shift ) as compared to 12 tonnes / man shift in Australia. As a solution privatising of coal sector is attempted, however it is still in preliminary stage. The challenge to policy makers in this regard is to ensure how to safeguard the wealth from illegal mining and environment within the region, at the same time benefit people in mining areas by making laws that do not outcaste people and their livelihoods as illegitimate also ensure greater transparency and standardization in pricing of coal. In coming years, demand for coal in the country is expected to increase multi fold, according to IEA 2006, Reuters 2007, hence the need for government to restructure the sector is critical to not only to answer many global implications concerning climate changes and Kyoto Protocol and but also streamline the definite increase in informal collieries which will continue to meet the demands of local consumers and ensure they meet minimum security and health standards of living. SOCIAL IMPACT Coal India Limited has destroyed environment in many coal traces with no or little concern for social implications, Inspire of Forest and environment controls. This behaviour can be attributed to sole monopoly power vested with one company on nationÃ¢â¬â¢s coal production. There were other instances of violation of human rights noticed while employee people at Coal mines One such example, It was noted that at Janita Hills, Meghalaya , India. 5000 children less than age of 18 was trafficked from Assam, Nepal and Bangladesh and employed by coal mines in Meghalaya which are contracted to private contractors by CIL . Many such instances were noticed not only in eastern part of India , but also across many nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ coal traces in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka states. Inspite of the Mines Act , 1952 which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow bonded labourers or people below the age of 18 to work. Sometimes even without environment degradations, large mining projects have impacted social lives with serious implications for the livelihoods of local communities around in and around coal traces, where people were forced to leave their traditional occupations for scavenging in left over coal traces, which are not economically viable for contractors. Such instances were noticed in Jharkhand, where government and company officials have neglected social and cultural issues around the mining areas for years impacting the livelihoods of people living in these areas. This has created a need for extreme leftist or Maoist Movements to resist such actsÃ¢â¬â as observed by Chandra Bhusan, Associate Director of Centre of Science and Environment. According to him Indian Mineralised tracts are mostly in conflict Zones, since Company officials, technical experts and governing bodies never seriously engaged with social issues. Current legal instruments are anti-poor and of colonial vintage and unable to deal with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s realities. Many Civil Non-Governmental Organisation groups have taken a non-violent approach to use existing judicial mechanisms such as filing Public Interest Litigation(PIL) to bring justice to local communities whose daily lives are impacted. Ex : PIL filed against Eastern Coalfields Limited by Mazdoor Sabha in CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s Apex court. Although Supreme Court Panel has lashed against CIL, It remained unresponsive SOCIAL LICENSE TO OPERATE Over the past 2 decades many changes were noticed in global mining industry. There is increased and concerted global efforts where nine major global companies supported a global scale project called Mines, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) Project ,whose direct outcome is to the increasing charges of environmental destruction and irresponsibility on coal mining companies to care socio-cultural changes caused by them in areas of operation are laid out and followed globally. MMSD group of companies agreed that Mining Company in developing countries not only needs Legal license to operate but also Social License to Operate. Under this backdrop At CIL, mining engineers who make all the plans , mining project itself assumes more importance over people living in these mining operations. This view was observed from many bureaucrats in India, CIL uses their rationale that Land Acquisition Act or Coal Bearing Areas Act does not provide assistance for Local people around the impacted areas, thus ignoring local needs and perpetuating illegal mining under its belt. ILLEGAL COAL MINING AND UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS In energy-hungry country like India, demand for coal has increased in the last 2 decades, coal production remained fairly stable, causing coal prices to surge in recent years. The lack of reform and rising demand have spawned a seedy underbelly of Ã¢â¬Å"Coal MafiaÃ¢â¬ and a class of workers that illegally scavenge the mines for coal. The Coal Nationalization act in 1952, revised in 2000 has made it legal for just the centre or state governments to authorize coal mining, i. . , only government owned companies, its subsidiaries and contracted third parties. Apart from illegally mining, scavenging from abandoned mines is another source of obtaining coal. In West Bengal state for instance Raniganj-Jharia region there are many abandoned mines by CIL subsidiaries which have neglected filling up the mines with sand, as per regulation , consequently villagers have ready access to scavenge. It was also observed that open abandoned underground mines release hazardous gases like Carbon Monoxide which are hazardous and can kill people who go to scavenge left over coal. Scavenging can occur in both underground and open cast mines. The later assumes greater significance. In these areas Poor Security of mines storage and transportation was observed where coal is transported with head baskets into awaiting trucks. Coal India also delivers coal to local sale dumps located near the mines and big dumps, pilferage takes place regularly on major highways from long distance. In eastern India, Its not unusual to see women and children work the unsafe mines with the most rudimentary tools. Most are drawn to it in the hopes of earning a betterÃ income. According to World Bank, over 20 million people depend on mineral resource extraction for living. When this number is compared with formal mining industries it is immensely large. PAUPERIZATION IN COAL MINING AREAS IN INDIA In colliery areas where CIL operates, significant amount of social and environmental transformation takes place over a period of time. Within bureaucratic and political circles the notion that Coal as a commodity is being excavated for greater common good by a Central government owned body like Coal India Limited, represents lack of attentions to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and social impacts of mining coal. Decay of social fabric, erosion of traditional livelihood, rising levels of urbanisation are some of the socio impacts which vary according to physical proximity of the mine to livelihoods. Between 1971 and 2001, people in Ranijang region in west Bengal have slowly moved away from agriculture as an occupation to mining and scavenging , even in non-colliery areas. Women especially from downtrodden caste and below poverty line are most impacted by this migration. In areas of Jharkhand gradual pauperization of people around coal mining areas have taken place in which traditional land and water rights in the region in which they live are lost and few negligible short term benefits of mining are accrued which will is leading to steady extinction of tribal people in remote coal mining areas. In most of the cases, links between the legal and illegal coal mines are more complex than above example. Both the groups either co-exist or coal mining company complains against scavenging to local authorities as law and order problem, however bureaucratic reply is usually pointing the company should take care of its resources. Hence in the existing legal setup both parties formally or informally will try to co-exist peacefully. Similar setup exists between large scale and small scale transportation in centralized control manner controlled by mafia group. Part of the root cause for such inefficient maintenance, transportation and distribution systems lies with CIL and its subsidiaries where they are not standardized and do not consider domestic consumer, In the entire eastern region CIL doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have large depot to cater the needs of domestic consumers. Hence often industry owner applies for a license to grant coal to fire the furnaces or generate power. This permission is difficult to get and consumer need to bribe any intermediate parties from company officials, bureaucrats and politicians leading to significant overhead cost for the company, there by preferring a shorter and simpler coal extracting methods by joining hands with mafia system or illegal mining. STRATEGY MAKING PROCESS FOLLOWED BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND COAL INDIA In the above sections, various issues faced by the community, company and the system at large are explained. To understand the issue in hand better and to analyse the issues lingering the sector better, GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s and CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour with larger society is compared with few Strategy making processes. According to author, current system has a predefined set of objectives and is thriving to achieve that without considering other subjects involved in entire scenario. This behaviour aptly fits into Classical approach highlighted by Grant (2008). The reductionist approach by MMRD and other acts by the Government can be mapped to this approach Government trying to oversimplify the complexities involved in various mines based on certain factors like Size, productivity etc. , such approach leads to formation of clear goals to the Company and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the company to recognize the emergent behaviour of the employees, people livelihoods in affected areas. Below is a modified representation of GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s Classical approach of Strategic Human Resource Management. Figure 1 : Common elements in successful Strategies , Adopted from Grant ( 2008: 7) Author notices that because of monopolistic nature of coal mining sector in India and sufficient support from political circles, there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sufficient pressure on the company for Profound understanding of all the groups involved. In Most of the cases, Long term agreed objectives takes more priority over other priorities mentioned like Profound Understanding of all groups involved, Regular Appraisals of employees involved and Environmental awareness. Hence the company will focus on financial targets to achieve more than Social Impact it creates in thousands of people it impacts. Thus it can be stated that Classical approach readily doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit in or help in solving the issue. Current Intended strategy of Government of India, behind Nationalization of Coal mining in 1952 is to protect the reserves from exploitation by private parties is well understood, however with the changing times , growing demand and involvement of various other socio-political and technological factors, Intended Strategy is not being completely realized. There is a deliberate effort on its part , to ensure current intended strategy works by allowing illegal mining and scavenging by local people in coal mining areas in order to peacefully co-exist and continue to mine in coal traces. However by comparing the number of court petitions filed by local tribes in Jharkhand, WestBengal living nearer to various collieries, comparing the productivity / person and high cost of mining compared to other export countries it can be understood that , slowly they are moving towards an unrealized strategy where focus is only on net volumes realized and not considering environmental impact . EMERGENT STRATEGY OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT In practice organization approach can be explained by Emergent Strategy approach as suggested by Mintzberg (1987) are relevant. According to March (1976) and Mintzberg (1987), planned strategies are not always realized; strategies can often emerge and evolve over a period of time. The Strategy should be moulded over action . Similar such fluid approach can be applied, where an additional dimension as mentioned below in Emergent strategy is required to recover from unrealized strategy and to streamline the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Privatization of coal mining along with a holistic review of existing mining policies impacting the sector is the emergent strategy to improve the productivity, transparency of coal production and livelihoods of people involved. However its application remains a challenge. Figure 2 : The Emergent Strategy, source from the strategy concept, California Management Review, Mintzberg. H, 1987. Systemic Approach of Strategic Human Resource management On similar lines to Emergent Approach of Strategic Human resource management, Whittington(1993,2001) systemic approach provides more answers to the issue, where Strategy is shaped by the social system the company operates within. This strategy is shaped by cultural and institutional interests of broader society, since organisations and decision makers are embedded in network of social relations, hence adept understanding of the needs of the society at large and acting accordingly should be key . OUTCOMES Profit-Maximising PROCESSES Deliberate Emergent Pluralistic Classical Evolutionary Systemic Processual OUTCOMES Profit-Maximising PROCESSES Deliberate Emergent Pluralistic Classical Evolutionary Systemic Processual Figure: 3WhittingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s (1993) generic perspective on strategy Author believes Emergent and Systemic approach to planning a strategy is apt and required by all parties involved( both policymakers and industrialists ) in order to operate in complex world with various socio-geo political limitations. This it can be concluded that to effectively manage human esources and to improve organisation performance , integration between human resource management and business strategy holds key for its success. (See Holbeche, 1999; Schuler and Jackson, 1999). EMPLOYEE RELATIONS IN COAL INDIA Coal India has both union and non-union based workers. Starting from 2009, it has been recruiting more than 1000 employees every year from premier management and technology schools across India. This is one of managemen t initiatives taken to inject fresh blood and reduce the average age of its labour force. While the decision to recruit young highly talented workforce as change agents is appreciable, 30 to 40 per cent of these employees quit every year for below reasons. 1) Staff felt they were demoralized by senior staff from the beginning. 2) Apart from salary issues, the staffs were under-utilised and faced hostility from seniors. 3) While recruitment, the staff were promised a grade above engineers however not fully implemented even after raising the concern to top management. Hence realized there are limited growth options. Treasurer of Coal Mines Officers Association of India partially accepted the conditions and commented this situation reflects the larger problem of stagnation within the organization It is understood , if the situation continues, the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s top coal producer is likely to grapple with unprecedented HR crisis across its executive cadre because of limited growth options and 6000 of their employees mostly from executive cadre getting retired every year. Falling on relevant literature , Kochan . T , 2000 has stated that Asian model of employee relations is designed to support an economic strategy that emphasises human resources as a competitive asset- A strategy that requires a highly skilled and committed workforce and a cooperative labour management culture and system. In Coal India, it can be observed that there are required structures in place like Unions for labour management, since the company is too big, management of resources is challenging. Since the company works in a monopolistic structure, there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t healthy competition which will push the management to focus on current internal and external problems with more vigilance rather than its current laid back approach and bureaucratic functioning. It can be noted that HR strategies should operate consistently as is a vital part of the overall business plan (Stroh and Caligiuri, 1998). Within the organisation senior management there should regularly conduct analysis regarding the kind of HR competencies needed in the future, and accordingly core HR functions (of procurement, development and compensation) should work together collectively to meet such needs. (see Holbeche, 1999). The 2 core aspects which organization has to focus is Integration of HRM into the business and corporate strategy, and the devolvement of HRM to line managers instead of personnel specialists, thereby ensuring company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have power blockages and allow it to function smoothly. Brewster and Larsen (1992: 411Ã¢â¬â12) define integration as Ã¢â¬Ëthe degree to which the HRM issues are considered to formulate long term business strategyÃ¢â¬â¢ and devolvement as Ã¢â¬Ëthe degree to which HRM practices involve line managers has responsible rather than personnel specialistsÃ¢â¬â¢. Similarly (Budhwar and Sparrow 1997; 2002; Hope-Hailey et al. , 1997; Truss et al. , 1997; Sisson and Storey, 2000) also highlighted the concept of devolvement for quicker response in large scale organizations. This process, highlights the need of prioritizing the issues and developing/ training more motivated employees for effective control. Instead of having a narrow hierarchy with in organization, there by leading to stagnation, it can be learnt from this theory that local problems should be resolved by local managers at grassroots level affording more time for senior management. Applying this theory to Coal India Limited, It can be understood that mine managers should be more proactive is liaising with local governments and bureaucracies to form an amicable solution for betterment of society as well as company. Company senior management should work closely and provide required assistance and authority to mine managers to perform their duties. In this context, the Coal India Limited management can learn from other global peers to understand how to deal with employee relations related issues effectively. Below is the summary of one such example stated by an author Young-Kee Kim, in his report on Employee relations. LG group from its inception till 1987 achieved high rates of economic growth with support from Government by suppressing unions, however in the period of 1987-89 it has faced severe hostility and strikes from its workers because of which resulted in 740 million dollars of loss. Post 1990 till 2005, as a result of research and many extensive internal surveys the roup has laid importance to new group level policy that emphasis the promotion of human dignity for employees and the maximisation of customer satisfaction. Voluntary employee participation in workplace organisational improvements has been identified as a critical success factor. Consequently the rapid realisation of co-operative labour relations and enlig htened ER practices has been recognised as tasks of major significance my member firms. * Company has evolved gradually from Passive support of Management perception of union to active partnership with unions.. It gradually made a cautious move from not just maintaining a stable labour relations climate in order to avoid labour disputes, it has invited a voluntary participation of employees and union leaders in management activities. * Unions characteristics of providing weak employee support to being professional in their activities and finally Employee Relations have moved from just dealing with basic issues to providing autonomy and participation of employees From the above example it can be understood that Firstly, without management innovation, co-operative Employee Relations cannot be achieved. For Labour management relations to be a positive sum game, these innovations should enable the company to achieve superior performance and the capacity to provide employees with better rewards. Secondly, much time and effort is required from top management to develop a constructive labour management culture. The Employee relations department cannot achieve the development of co-operative employment relations by itself. The labour management relationship should be viewed as a profit Ã¢â¬â creating relationship, rather than a cost Ã¢â¬âcreating one. Thirdly, the company should support increased independence and professionalism on the part of the union and provide education for union leaders. A union that lacks professionalism is unable to get a full support of its members and lacks effective management strategies for administering union business because of high turnover of union officials. Fourthly, to be successful all these activities should be conducted consistently and systematically over time. Many companies only seriously consider the labour management relationship when faced by a critical problem. Such focused attention tends to fade when the strike is settled. As explained in the above example, LG group has chosen a different path and spent a year analysing its Employee relations. CONCLUSION IS PRIVATISATION A SOLUTION ? Currently both globally and in India, demand for coal is on the rise, thereby increasing the prices of coal. Due to the volatile times passing through, similar to other commodity sectors like Iron, steel, Coal Mining industry will also undergo divestment and monopoly of Coal India Limited will break. However privatisation is not a panacea for all issues lingering the sector. Time has come for Policy makers, bureaucracy and other parties involved come together to answer few critical questions while restructuring the sector. 1) How to deal with thousands of people making their livelihood from illegal mining of coal ? 2) Will the government able to accept few realities like people living in local region , have rights on mineral resources to strength the lower strata and provide a sense of security to their livelihood ? 3) Can the government, restructure the sector with more robust, full proof, social informed laws protecting and respecting the rights and interests of all involved ? ) With experience from privatising other commodities, after privatising coal mining ,it can be estimated that mushrooming of small coal mining leases can be experienced in an open market scenario. Hence laws and policies safeguarding the interests should be more inclusive than before. Where policies and laws have to deliver sustainable benefits to local and global communities, un like current laws that are focused only on mitigating the negative impacts of mining on the environment and marginalizing small groups over national priorities. Government policies need to take a more holistic approach in understanding about production of Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal minesÃ¢â¬ as well as marketing and distribution chains through which legally mined coal is illegally distributed. It is vital to integrate local interests in mine management plans to provide access to resources for local people and co-exist peacefully for inclusive growth.. References : Books and Internet Links * Bamber J, Park F, Lee C, Ross P and Broadbent K, 2000, Employment Relations in the ASIA-PACIFIC Changing Approaches, Allen and Unwin, Australia. BeardWell J ;amp; Claydon T, 1994, Human Resouce Management Ã¢â¬â A Contemporary Approach, Pearson Education Limited, Great Britian. * LG Group ( 1994) LG Labour Ã¢â¬â Management Relations Long-term Model Report * http://www. thehindubusinessline. com/companies/article2470720. ece * http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/coal-india-ltd/infocompanyhistory/companyid-11822. cms * http://articles. economictimes. indiatim es. com/2011-10-18/news/30295579_1_iits-and-iims-new-recruits-cil * http://www. firstpost. com/business/labour-pangs-for-coal-india-scrip-melts-in-the-heat-67084. tml * http://in. reuters. com/article/2012/10/12/tci-coalindia-idINDEE89B08G20121012 * http://www. dnaindia. com/money/report_coal-india-to-face-india-s-first-class-action-suit-in-15-days_1770358 * http://www. livemint. com/Companies/jEkLsitce5Qt0wx3gyS3sM/Coal-India8217s-UK-shareholder-to-file-petition-in-Indian. html * http://ibnlive. in. com/news/meghalaya-braveheart-fights-against-child-labour-in-coal-mines/266778-3. html * http://www. amusingplanet. com/2011/05/child-labor-in-indian-coal-mines. html * http://www. elshcoalmines. co. uk/forum/read. php? 4,50329,50370#msg-50370 * http://www. mining. com/los-angeles-times-uncovers-child-labour-in-indias-coal-mines/ * http://articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2012-11-14/guwahati/35111450_1_child-labourers-coal-mines-meghalaya-government * http://www. businessinsider. com/photos-indias-illegal-coal-mines-2012-10? op=1 * http://www. thesundayindian. com/en/story/the-unfortunate-social-costs-of-coalgate-and-such-scams/42442/ * http://papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=1716581 *
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Imagine picking up the newspaper one morning in you quiet little town where nothing ever seems to happen that could affect the townspeople so drasticallyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Latham Weekly, June 2, 1998Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Bizarre Murders Committed In Raccoon CityÃ¢â¬ is the fearful headline across the front page and you read on wondering what all this could mean and what would happen in the months to come. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Raccoon City Ã¢â¬â The mutilated body of forty-two-year-old Anna Mitaki was discovered late yesterday in an abandoned lot not far from her home in Northwest Raccoon City.Ã¢â¬ You never thought it could happen. Especially in a quiet town like yours. A dear friend of yours has been viscously murdered. She has been the forth victim of what people are now calling the Ã¢â¬Å"Cannibal Killers.Ã¢â¬ The reason for this is due to that all the victims found were partially eaten; the bite patterns apparently formed by human jaws. This report has now brought the mysterious killings up to seven. Ã¢â¬Å"Raccoon Times, June 22, 1998 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Horror In Raccoon! More Victims DeadÃ¢â¬ (You could only wonder what this means for the city.) Ã¢â¬Å"Raccoon City Ã¢â¬â The bodies of a young couple were found early Sunday morning in Victory Park, making Deanne Rusch and Christopher Smith the eight and ninth victims in the reign of violence that has terrorized the city since mid-May of this year.Ã¢â¬ As you read on you find out that these victims suffered the same wounds as the previous victims. All is quiet again for about another month due to the Raccoon Police enforcing a citywide curfew and barricading areas near where the murders took place. After that month of somewhat normalness you read the newspaper to find that something will be done to help out the city. Ã¢â¬Å"Cityside, July 21, 1998 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã S.T.A.R.S. Special Tactics And Rescue Squad Sent To Save Raccoon CityÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã You think to yourselfÃ¢â¬ ¦thank God something is finally going to be done to put an end to this on going horror. Ã¢â¬Å"Police Chief Brian Irons announced yesterday that the S.T.A.R.S. will participate full-time in the search for the hikers and will also be working closely with the RPD until there is an end to the rash of murders and disappearances that are destroying the community. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Chief Irons, a former S.T.A.R.S. member himself, was asked in an exclusive telephone interview from Cityside about why the S.T.A.R.S. hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been assigned to these cases until now, Chief Irons would only say that the S. Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy :: essays research papers Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Imagine picking up the newspaper one morning in you quiet little town where nothing ever seems to happen that could affect the townspeople so drasticallyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Latham Weekly, June 2, 1998Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Bizarre Murders Committed In Raccoon CityÃ¢â¬ is the fearful headline across the front page and you read on wondering what all this could mean and what would happen in the months to come. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Raccoon City Ã¢â¬â The mutilated body of forty-two-year-old Anna Mitaki was discovered late yesterday in an abandoned lot not far from her home in Northwest Raccoon City.Ã¢â¬ You never thought it could happen. Especially in a quiet town like yours. A dear friend of yours has been viscously murdered. She has been the forth victim of what people are now calling the Ã¢â¬Å"Cannibal Killers.Ã¢â¬ The reason for this is due to that all the victims found were partially eaten; the bite patterns apparently formed by human jaws. This report has now brought the mysterious killings up to seven. Ã¢â¬Å"Raccoon Times, June 22, 1998 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Horror In Raccoon! More Victims DeadÃ¢â¬ (You could only wonder what this means for the city.) Ã¢â¬Å"Raccoon City Ã¢â¬â The bodies of a young couple were found early Sunday morning in Victory Park, making Deanne Rusch and Christopher Smith the eight and ninth victims in the reign of violence that has terrorized the city since mid-May of this year.Ã¢â¬ As you read on you find out that these victims suffered the same wounds as the previous victims. All is quiet again for about another month due to the Raccoon Police enforcing a citywide curfew and barricading areas near where the murders took place. After that month of somewhat normalness you read the newspaper to find that something will be done to help out the city. Ã¢â¬Å"Cityside, July 21, 1998 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã S.T.A.R.S. Special Tactics And Rescue Squad Sent To Save Raccoon CityÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã You think to yourselfÃ¢â¬ ¦thank God something is finally going to be done to put an end to this on going horror. Ã¢â¬Å"Police Chief Brian Irons announced yesterday that the S.T.A.R.S. will participate full-time in the search for the hikers and will also be working closely with the RPD until there is an end to the rash of murders and disappearances that are destroying the community. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Chief Irons, a former S.T.A.R.S. member himself, was asked in an exclusive telephone interview from Cityside about why the S.T.A.R.S. hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been assigned to these cases until now, Chief Irons would only say that the S.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Macbeth is a real tragedy written by William Shakespeare for whatÃ¢â¬â¢s presented is a morally significant struggle, one that attempts to engage our sympathies and understanding. In this dark and powerful tragedy, Macbeth is a part of several murders, including the murder of King Duncan of Scotland. Macbeth performs these murders after he encounters the weird sisters and hears the prophecy that he will one day become the King of Scotland. But although Macbeth was the one that was directly involved in every murder, there are other influences that have an impact on his pursue for the crown of Scotland and could be responsible for the evil done in the play. When Lady Macbeth first hears about the prophecy of the witches, she immediately plans DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s murder because of her ambition for her husband to become king. The weird sisters, also known as the three witches, initiates the murders because they prompt Macbeth to murder Duncan with their prophecies that Macbeth will one day become the King of Scotland. But ultimately, Macbeth is the villain of this tragedy in view of the fact that he is accountable for the murder of Duncan and also orders his subordinates to murder Banquo and the family of Macduff. Macbeth is most responsible for the evil done in the play owing to the fact that his killing of Duncan provokes the other murders and evil in the play. Although Lady Macbeth is a part of the murders that occur in Macbeth, she is not responsible for the evil done in the play. Lady Macbeth is a very cunning, manipulative character. When she hears about the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ prophecy of Macbeth becoming the future king of Scotland, she immediately demands Macbeth to murder Duncan so Macbeth could become king. Lady Macbeth successfully persuades him to kill Duncan by questioning his masculinity. Lady Macbeth puts the idea in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s mind that he will be a coward if he does not commit the murder. After persuading him, Macbeth finally commits the murder. Therefore, Lady Macbeth is evil for she pressures Macbeth into killing Duncan. But, she is not responsible for the evil done in the play. Although she is a strong, significant figure in the murder of Duncan, she begins to change through the play as she starts to feel the guilt and remorse for persuading Macbeth to kill Duncan. She ultimately kills herself because she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t manage the guilt and grief for her involvement in the murder and seeing her husband turn into an evil, uncontrollable villain. Therefore, she is not responsible for the evil done in the play because although she persuades Macbeth to kill Duncan, she later feels guilt for what sheÃ¢â¬â¢s done. The three witches are also not responsible for the evil done in the play. In the beginning, the three witches tells Macbeth his prophesy that he will one day become the king of Scotland. When Lady Macbeth hears about the prophecy, all she thinks about is her husband becoming king. So, Lady Macbeth convinces Macbeth to kill Duncan in order for Macbeth to become king as soon as possible. If the three witches never told Macbeth the prophesy of him becoming king, none of the murders would have happened. Therefore, without the witches, there would be no evil in the play. But, the three witches are not responsible for the evil done in the play because even though they incite Macbeth and Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for king, it was Macbeth who ultimately decides to murder Duncan, which causes the rest of the evil done in the play. Macbeth is responsible for the evil done in the play. Macbeth is more evil than the other characters because he is the reason why all of the murders in the play occur. He murders Duncan because of his evil desire to become the king of Scotland as soon as possible. Ã¢â¬Å"Stars, hide your fires; Let not light see my black and deep desires.Ã¢â¬ (I, Scene 4, lines 57-58) This quote shows MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s great desire to become king and also shows how he is aware that his thoughts are evil. But, he does not do anything to keep himself away from these dark thoughts and he eventually commits the evil murder. The murder is certainly avoidable, but he let Lady Macbeth influence him. Ã¢â¬Å"This nightÃ¢â¬â¢s great businessÃ¢â¬ ¦ sway and masterdom.Ã¢â¬ (I, Scene 5, Lines 80-82) This quote shows how Lady Macbeth has total control over Macbeth and how Macbeth put the power into Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s hands. Macbeth could have told Lady Macbeth to stop her plans, but instead he gives all the power to her and eventually agrees with her. Therefore, the murder of Duncan is completely his fault because he lets Lady Macbeth influence him and commit the murder himself. Macbeth is also responsible for the other murders in the play because he hires three murderers to kill Banquo and orders his servants to kill MacduffÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Consequently, Macbeth is responsible for the evil done in the play because he involves himself in all of the murders in the play. Macbeth is accountable for the evil done in Macbeth because his murder of Duncan causes a chain reaction and brings about the rest of the evil in the play. Although Lady Macbeth has a notable influence on Macbeth to commit the murder of Duncan, it was ultimately his decision to kill Duncan and order the other murders. The Three Witches incites Macbeth and Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for the throne of Scotland, but MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to commit the murders ultimately brought darkness and fear onto Scotland. Macbeth is responsible for DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s death, and that murder causes a chain reaction and incites the other murders. If he did not murder Duncan, there would not have been any evil in this play to start with. Ultimately, Macbeth compels to arise these evils, and it is his greed to blame. Macbeth is already known as a man of integrity for being appointed as the Thane of Cawdor, but his greed and avarice brings about the evil that he carries out. This relates to human nature because even if a man has everything to gratify his needs, his greed can demand for more, leading to trouble just like Macbeth. This demonstrates that if you only care about your own needs and always ask for more, you will be unsuccessful. As Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Earth provides enough to satisfy every manÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, but not every manÃ¢â¬â¢s greed.Ã¢â¬ [Word Count: 1057]
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Plagiarism is always granted, specifically by Western universities, to be a vital issue affecting studentÃ¢â¬â¢s study result or even on their onward lifetime. Many critics attempt to shed light on how culture influences the plagiarism practice including Colin Sowden. Sowden (2005) stated that the differences in cultural background seem to be a crucial determinant, especially for the Asian students, to acknowledge that utilizing ideas from the others without referencing is acceptable. He, also, suggests approach for Western universities to compromise and help the overseas students by improving their comprehension and language skills via oral presentation. However, it seems that SowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s article is including some selective information andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Memorization study approach: Sowden (2005:229) assumes the idea that Asian students seems to get accustomed with the memorization study approach with less critical thinking. In other words, the Asian students are more likely to learn by reproducing the existing knowledge and this reproductive approach seems to promote plagiarism as he has stated. However, it appears that Sowden attempts to explain the connection between the memorization approach with plagiarism by using implicitly assumption that memorization study approach is to reproduce the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s idea and knowledge without citation, and this can be a part of plagiarism practice. His implicit assumption is seemingly wrong, as a matter of fact, the concept of memorization and copying is different to some extent. Memorization is a tool to support the overseas students to improve their language skills by memorizing how to write a well-written essay. This is not similar to copying which means to steal or use other ideas and claim to be their own. Liu (200 5:237) also highlights this difference in his study, Ã¢â¬ËYet memorizing good writing to help one to learn better is not the same thing as copying other work and claiming it as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ownÃ¢â¬â¢. All in all, SowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s study (2005) provides the useful perspectiveShow MoreRelatedPlagiarism And The Culture Of Multilingual Students1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesConcerning the issue of how the cultural conditioning plays in the regard of plagiarism, I will be analyzing Plagiarism and the culture of multilingual students in higher education abroad by Colin Sowden alongside with Plagiarism in ESOL students: Is cultural conditioning truly the major culprit? by Dilin Liu. Plagiarism in writing, which could be defined as borrowing a creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s original ideas and/or words without attributing credits where itÃ¢â¬â¢s due, is considered a big concern in higher-educationRead MoreEssay on Ethics in Todays Universities1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesway that many students define cheating and plagiarism. For example, my friend told me that he believed that cutting and pasting a few sentences from various web sources without acknowledgment is not plagiarism. Before the internet, students certainly plagiarized, but they had to plan ahead to do so. Nowadays its so easy. To this day fraternities and sororities often have files of term papers that they share with each other. In the previous decade, plagiarism required more thought and some planningRead MoreSample Resume : National Diploma Essay1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesManage the development of small business ventures L 6 C 5 NOTE: USE SEPARATE SHEETS FOR YOUR ANSWERS. 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This work may be used for benchmarking - I give permissionRead MoreEssay on Case Studies on Academic Integrity15905 Words Ã |Ã 64 PagesProject) Although they may be based on real life stories, they have been adapted and anonymised for the purposes of this project resource; pseudonyms are used in every instance. The case studies are designed to be used as triggers for discussion in group seminars and primarily target teaching staff, although they could be used for discussion with students or other academic integrity stakeholders.Ã Support for this project/activity has been provided by the Australian Government Office for LearningRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography: Plagiarism39529 Words Ã |Ã 158 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Plagiarism Bibliography Buckwalter, J. A., Wright, T., Mogoanta, L. and Alman, B. (2012), Plagiarism: An assault on the integrity of scientific research. J. Orthop. Res., 30:Ã 1867 1868. Granitz, N. and Loewy, D. (2007). Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 293-306. Luke, B. and Kearins, K. (2012), Attribution of words versus attribution of responsibilities: Academic plagiarism and university practice. Vaccine, 30(50):Read MoreInformative Speech Outline2182 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesclass exercises. Most importantly, they will learn how to prepare and present effective speeches both individually, in pairs as well as in group. Aims: By the end of the course, students should be able to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ understand principles and practices of public speaking. Ã¢â¬ ¢ select, prepare and develop effective speeches. Ã¢â¬ ¢ give public speeches in groups and individually. Textbook: The Challenge Of Effective Speaking (14th Edition). Verdeber, Verdeber and Sellnow. Thomson-Wadsworth, 2008Read MoreWorkplace Citizenship8908 Words Ã |Ã 36 PagesWeekly Learning Guides 9 Textbooks readings 9 Research skills component 10 Additional study resources 10 Assignments 11 Overview of assignments 11 Submission of assignments 11 Extensions late submission 12 Grading guidelines 12 Copying plagiarism 13 Assignment 1 Ã¢â¬â Learning Reflections 14 Assignment 2 Ã¢â¬â Annotated Bibliography 16 Assignment 3 Ã¢â¬â PowerPoint Presentation 20 Assignment 4 Ã¢â¬â Final Essay 22 Your feedback 25 Student Evaluation of Learning and Teaching (SELT) 25 Support servicesRead MoreApa Writing Style and Mechanics7913 Words Ã |Ã 32 PagesAxia College, Meritus University) **All lines are double-spaced (no single or triple spacing) throughout the entire document. The APA Sample Paper provided by the Center for Writing Excellence represents the consensus of several deans and other key academic officials within Apollo Group. The sample paper attempts to match APA style to the University s curriculum and academic services. Nevertheless, in advanced matters of style and formatting, differing interpretations of APA guidelines exist.Read MoreComputer Ethics and Information Systems3732 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesmany jobs, resulting in widespread job loss. Ethics- Guidelines or rules of conduct that govern our lives, work, behavior and communication in both public and private undertaking. Ethics are a set of moral principles that govern an individual or a group on what is acceptable behaviour while using a computer. Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the usage of computers. One of the common issues of computer ethics is violation of copyright issues. Duplicating copyrighted content without
Saturday, December 28, 2019
A culturally responsive environment in the classroom is essential in building the bridge between home culture and a school culture. Also it is vital to ensure that all students are able to succeed by incorporating and understanding students cultural beliefs and practices. As becoming a culturally responsive teacher means being able to appreciate, understand, and work with children and families from different cultures. ( Coleman, p.177). Developing a positive mind set and the reality check #2: Teachers need not give up on their own family values in order to resect the family values of others.( Coleman, p28). It is important to be open minded to other people different family structures and beliefs. Culturally responsive teaching is a systematic approach to modern day teaching by taking into consideration the aspects of culture and its values. As an educator it is important to be aware of the various learners in the classroom as well as being able to shift lessons accordingly to adapt to a greater number of students. In addition it is essential that culturally responsive practices is adapted in the classroom in order for all students to have a sense of belonging and are able to participate. For this reason, a teacher must actively use culturally responsive practices to engage students and their families because it helps to develop a relationship and maintain a level of communication. Learning Ã¢â¬Å"factsÃ¢â¬ about different cultures is not enough, it is more important that we makeShow MoreRelatedAn Example Of One After School Program1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseducation can also be further impacted by the amount of funding a school receives in connection to the amount of ach ievement that can be accomplished by a school in a low funded area. 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Teachers now have to completely reshape the curriculum, learning within the context of culture, and making sure that communication is of high expectationsRead MoreDeveloping And Implementing Strategies For Establish Parent Involvement846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne framework used to facilitate teachers in developing and implementing strategies to establish parent involvement is k nown as BRIDGES; BRIDGES stands for Build, Recruit, Individualize, Dialogue, Generate, Empower, and Strengthen. During the building stage, teachers establish meaningful connections with parents based on the foundation of trust and understanding. These meaningful connections can be made through monthly newsletter, weekly progress reports, utilizing a communication log, and solicitingRead MoreContrasting Cultures in Tans Mother Tongue and Nguyens The Happy Days Syndrome1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesillustrate this struggle in their works, Ã¢â¬Å"Mother TongueÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Happy Days,Ã¢â¬ respectfully. Amy Tan chooses her childhood home as the primary setting of her work. This allows her to focus primarily on her conversations and interactions with her mother. However, she also gives several anecdotes in which her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s background and improper English negatively affected her, outside the home. Through her recollection of these events, she reveals both her immediate r eactions and her thoughts and opinions lookingRead MoreCommunication Skills And Language Proficiency1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfrom Macedonia. This means heÃ¢â¬â¢s been in the country for four years and he has received all of his formal schooling here in the United States, and as a result he has never learned to read or write in his native Macedonian language. AK speaks English at home with his mother, but she has a very distinct accent, which does affect some of her pronunciation of English words. This has helped him develop conversational English language proficiency or Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) that are averageRead MoreEngland Throughout History1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschallenged people who wanted Mary Queen of Scots on the throne instead of her. Queen Mary was executed in 1587. After Elizabeth died she was succeeded by MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s son James I. 1642-49 were seven hard years for England because a civil war took place between the royalists and rebels. While the war was happening Titus Oates had a plan to assassinate the king. The outcome of the war was in favor of the rebels. The monarchies were destroyed and the King Charles I was beheaded on a scaffold. Along with theRead MoreTrue Education : What Motive Is Appeal?1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe educational system in Mesoamerica aka Anahuac was and is exactly this, to receive instructional and physical studies, develop physical powers and mental faculties that go in harmony with the moral values, and while that was taught in school, there was also a home education given. AnahuacÃ¢â¬â¢s education was and is unique, authentic, and distinct from other educational systems during their existence as well as very different from the educational system we have now in the United States. AnahuacÃ¢â¬â¢s uniquenessRead MoreMy Current Perceptions Of Children s Learning Essay912 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespractices (Cobb 2015, p. 14). Ball cited in (Cobb 2015, p. 14) observes that Ã¢â¬Å"educational improvements consider that understanding and community is about building bridges between the experiences of the child and the knowledge of the expert. Vygotsky as cited in (Cobb 2015, p. 16) says cultural development appears as a social relationship between people (intermental), and then within the child as an intramental category. The information more if they can touch, feel and see. A Vygotskian understanding